By: Bhupinder (Bo) Singh
The earthen lamp Deewa has become antiquated, thanks to the invention of electricity. Still one time of the year during Diwali, it makes a comeback as a gentle reminder of its earlier thriving heydays. But 550 years back it was ubiquitous, as well as a daily essential, providing illumination after darkness. The continued fast pace of technological advancement is soon going to relegate this icon of illumination to museums along with other displayed antique historical objects. Imagine, how the coming generation, not experienced to Deewa could relate to metaphor of Deewa, when trying to explain something of supreme significance. So, this Diwali time let us explore the metaphor of Deewa to get the insight that Guru Ji is sharing with us. We still have many alive from that generation who had exposure to Deewa in their real lives and can relate to it.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji has shared the significance of light of the Deewa in this shabad as under to show how it dispels darkness:
“ਦੀਵਾ ਬਲੈ ਅੰਧੇਰਾ ਜਾਇ ॥ ਬੇਦ ਪਾਠ ਮਤਿ ਪਾਪਾ ਖਾਇ ॥”
“Deewaa balai andheraa jai. Bedh paaTh mut paapaa khai .” (SGGS, Pg. No. 791)
Translation: (Just as) when the lamp is lit, the darkness is dispelled; (similarly) reading the scriptures (not just the Veda’s text per se, but the life molded by them) sinful intellect is purged.
Guru Ji has used the metaphor of lamp, to talk about the lamp of wisdom within. Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s observation is of a common fact that the darkness is dispelled with light. Darkness does not have an independent existence of its own, it is simply absence of light. When the light enters that space, the phenomenon of dispelling the darkness is automatic. But what type of darkness is being referred to by Guru Ji here? Darkness here is not physical absence of light, but our dark nature as desires, greed, covetousness, temptation, ignorance, egotism, hypocrisy, lustfulness, selfishness, mental delusion etc. The darkness that engages our awareness so completely, overpowering it fully, and incapacitating its rationality. In short that life is an unenlightened existence.
In another place in Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Guru Ji has compared the life molded from attentive study of spiritual scriptures to that lamp of enlightenment. Guru Ji says:
“ਦੀਵਾ ਮੇਰਾ ਏਕੁ ਨਾਮੁ ਦੁਖੁ ਵਿਚਿ ਪਾਇਆ ਤੇਲੁ ॥ ਉਨਿ ਚਾਨਣਿ ਓਹੁ ਸੋਖਿਆ ਚੂਕਾ ਜਮ ਸਿਉ ਮੇਲੁ ॥੧॥”
“Deewaa meraa aek naam dhukh vich paiaa tel. Aun chaanan oh sokhiaa chookaa jam siau mel. 1.” (SGGS, Pg. No. 358)
Translation: The Naam alone is my lamp; I have put the oil of (worldly) suffering into it. Its flame (which provides light in this world and the after world) has dried up this oil and I have escaped my meeting with the Messenger of Death. ||1||
Guru Ji says his lamp is “Naam”. “Naam” is the constant awareness of the Divine presence of the Creator in the creation. Naam is the awareness in which sins in life are not committed. The consequence of its light shining within is the meeting with messengers of death does not take place. This educational aspect is not shared by our schools, higher educational institutions, parents, society, or the media. That unique awareness is only developed through life molded from the deep study of scriptures. Which in turn consumed all the sufferings, just as the wick soaked in oil consumed it, in return providing us with the light. Imagine, with “Naam” all the sufferings are gone. The sufferings in life which were stoically accepted, becomes the impetus for spiritual growth. The bigger benefit is that the constantly wavering mind is stilled and is not affected even with worldly enticements or threats. Let us ask Guru Ji to further clarify on the type of fuel he is referring to and explain about the wick as well. Guru Ji says:
“ਪੋਥੀ ਪੁਰਾਣ ਕਮਾਈਐ ॥ ਭਉ ਵਟੀ ਇਤੁ ਤਨਿ ਪਾਈਐ ॥ ਸਚੁ ਬੂਝਣੁ ਆਣਿ ਜਲਾਈਐ ॥੨॥”
“Pothee puraan kamaieeaai. Bhau vaTee it tan paieeaai. Sach boojhan aan jalaieeaai. 2.”
(SGGS, Pg. No. 25)
Translation: Let the implementation of the instructions of your prayer book be the oil and let the reverent fear of God be the wick for the lamp of this body. Light this lamp with the understanding of Truth. ||2||
Here Guru Ji is making it clear that scriptures are not merely to be read but internalized, implemented in life transforming it. The reverent fear acts as the wick of this body-lamp. So:
Lamp = Human Body
Oil (Fuel) = meditation and reflection on the scriptures removes suffering/worries
Wick = Reverent Fear
When this lamp is lighted within, that will make one a “Brahmgyani” or “Gurmukh”, who is one with God, while alive. However, there is a strong impediment to its implementation in life. That hurdle is attachment to the illusion or “Maya”. The phenomenal world in which everything is perishable yet appears surreal, enticing, and lasting. It attracts us making us attached to its various forms. As this illusion is perceived by mind alone, in other words mind it is “Maya”. What is the ‘Modes Operandi’ of Maya is clarified by Guru Ji as:
“ਏਹ ਮਾਇਆ ਜਿਤੁ ਹਰਿ ਵਿਸਰੈ ਮੋਹੁ ਉਪਜੈ ਭਾਉ ਦੂਜਾ ਲਾਇਆ ॥”
“Eh maiaa jit har visarai moh upajai bhaau dhoojaa laiaa.” (SGGS, Pg. No. 921)
Translation: This is Maya, by which (1) “Hari” (Mool) is forsaken; (2) (worldly) attachment is born, and (3) the love of duality wells up within.
Anything that exists in the created world and attracts us to it is Maya. It takes us away from the remembrance of the Creator. When the camouflage of “Maya” is removed from over the creation, then its True essence is witnessed and experienced. Gurbani says that in order to drive away “Maya” the reverent fear needs to be inculcated. It is the fear that all my education, wealth, assets, power, position, family –wife, children, parents, relatives, and friends cannot help me there in the world after. The fear, that the inaction or inertia on my part can cost me my close relationship with my Guru. The fear, that the rebirth in human form may not be a future feasibility. This fear gives a birth to a new awareness, capable of driving away all other worldly fears. These fears are going to make the seeker bold, fearless to the world. Guru Ji says that without this reverent fear, no one ever crosses across the world-ocean.
“ਭੈ ਬਿਨੁ ਕੋਇ ਨ ਲੰਘਸਿ ਪਾਰਿ ॥”
“Bhaai bin koi na langhas paar.” (SGGS, Pg. No. 151)
Translation: Without the Fear (of God), no one crosses over the world-ocean.
This reverent fear will in turn give birth to the love for “Naam”. Guru Ji has shared that aspect in these words:
“ਭੈ ਬਿਨੁ ਭਗਤਿ ਨ ਹੋਵਈ ਨਾਮਿ ਨ ਲਗੈ ਪਿਆਰੁ ॥ ਸਤਿਗੁਰਿ ਮਿਲਿਐ ਭਉ ਊਪਜੈ ਭੈ ਭਾਇ ਰੰਗੁ ਸਵਾਰਿ ॥”
“Bhaai bin bhagat na hoviee naam na lagai piaar . Satgur miliaai bhau uoopajai bhaai bhai rang savaar.” (SGGS, Pg. No. 788)
Translation: Without the (reverent) Fear of God, there is no devotional worship, and no love for the Naam, the Name of the Lord. Meeting with the True Guru, the reverent Fear of God wells up, and one is embellished with the Fear and the Love of God.
When the lamp of wisdom is lighted within, its light, its illumination will shine all around dispelling darkness. Thus, darkness without any independent existence of its own, makes the absence of light as the prop for its existence. When that lamp is lighted, it cannot be extinguished as the fuel supply awareness is uninterrupted. All the darkness of the world fails to impact it light. Guru Ji has said that when that light is illumined, it can even dim the other light sources. Guru Ji provides the analogy of the light of sun and how it overwhelms the moon in the sky rendering it invisible.
“ਉਗਵੈ ਸੂਰੁ ਨ ਜਾਪੈ ਚੰਦੁ ॥ ਜਹ ਗਿਆਨ ਪ੍ਰਗਾਸੁ ਅਗਿਆਨੁ ਮਿਟੰਤੁ ॥”
“Ugavaai soor na jaapai chand. Jeh giaan pragaas agiaan miTant.” (SGGS, Pg. No. 791)
Translation: (Just as) when the sun rises, the moon succumbs (by becoming invisible). (Similarly,) wherever spiritual wisdom glows, ignorance is dispelled.
Here, Guru Ji has given example of the sun to explain a phenomenon and its effect. When the spiritual (divine) wisdom appears, the mental ignorance is dispelled, along with its grip and power. This is the ignorance which gave birth to the attachment to the false or the perishable, with greed as its collateral effect. Attachment to the world was the cause of this darkness, which is now dispelled. Now, let us see what Guru Ji is saying in the subsequent lines of the shabad:
“ਬੇਦ ਪਾਠ ਸੰਸਾਰ ਕੀ ਕਾਰ ॥ ਪੜਿ੍ ਪੜਿ੍ ਪੰਡਿਤ ਕਰਹਿ ਬੀਚਾਰ ॥”
“Bedh paaTh sansaar kee kaar. PaRi(h) paRi(h) pundit kareh beechaar.” (SGGS, Pg. No. 791)
Translation: Reading the Vedas (has) become the world’s occupation; the Pundits read them, study those and hold discourses on them.
Guru Ji is talking here about the scripture of Vedas, read as an academic endeavor, and debated based on the in-depth understanding amongst the scholars ensues. But this mental acrobatics is meaningless exhibition of academic acumen as no transformation has taken place within. Essentially Guru Ji is not in a favor of such scholastic endeavors. For Guru Ji, study should bring the change within.
“ਬਿਨੁ ਬੂਝੇ ਸਭ ਹੋਇ ਖੁਆਰ ॥ ਨਾਨਕ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਉਤਰਸਿ ਪਾਰਿ ॥੧॥”
“Bin boojhe sabh hoi khuaar. Nanak gurmukh utaras paar. 1.” (SGGS, Pg. No. 791)
Translation: Without the understanding and transformation brought by it, all are ruined. O Nanak, the Gurmukh is carried across (as with their new awareness they do not tread the path of sins). ||1||
Those who turned their face towards Guru, becoming Gurmukh have implemented Guru Ji’s teachings in their lives transforming it. When the lamp is lighted, all plans, actions are weighed in under its light as a result of it sins are not committed out of ignorance. Thus, light of scriptures destroyed the evil intellect. But let us try to find what those Gurmukhs acquired when this lamp was lit within. Guru Nanak Ji says:
“ਪਾਇਆ ਰਤਨੁ ਘਰਾਹੁ ਦੀਵਾ ਬਾਲਿਆ ॥”
“Paiaa rattan gharaahu deewaa baaliaa.” (SGGS, Pg. No. 149)
Translation: I have found the jewel (of Naam) within the home of my own self; the lamp within has been lit.
When that lamp of “Naam” is lighted within, then one meets the Lord within as Guru Ji shares with us:
“ਕਰਿ ਚਾਨਣੁ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਤਉ ਮਿਲੈ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥”
“Kar chaanan saahib tau milai. 1. Rahaau.” (SGGS, Pg. No. 25)
Translation: Light it (within) and meet your Lord and Master. ||1||Pause||
When the lamp of awareness is lit within, the meeting and merger with God will take place; nothing else is left to be accomplished in human life. The achievement means living a life cognizant of the constant awareness of the Creator. This is the true lamp or a compass which will keep everything in life pointing north or Holy principled. The following steps have been taken to get here:
- Study of Scriptures
- Resulted in a new Awareness of presence of consciousness in entire creation
- Implementation of Do’s and Don’ts in life from study of Scriptures
- Inculcated healthy fear of Divine
- Lifestyle transformed from indulgence to detachment
- Life became principled and dedicated to selfless service
The devotee is honored in the house of the Lord with His divine grace becoming one with Him. When the spirit is awakened in life, it transforms life making it principled. It is Deewali not just on a particular day of the year, but every day, every moment, as every action is principled. All the decisions in life are now made with that illumination within. A vision expansion has taken place within and now boundary of self is stretched out beyond the skin boundary to encompass the entire creation. That is the merger with the divine. Guru Ji explains:
“ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਭਗਤਿ ਘਟਿ ਚਾਨਣੁ ਹੋਇ ॥ ਆਪੁ ਪਛਾਣਿ ਮਿਲੈ ਪ੍ਰਭੁ ਸੋਇ ॥1॥ ਰਹਾਉ॥”
“Gurmukh bhagat ghaT channan hoi. Aap pachhaan milai prabh soi. 1. Rahaau.”
(SGGS, Pg. No. 364)
Translation: The Gurmukh has the light of devotional worship within his heart. Understanding his own self, he meets God. ||1||Pause||
When that achievement has taken place, the lamp has been lighted within and nothing else is left to be achieved in life. That life is truly a successful life. The state of mind is charged with positivity and constant adoration takes place within. When the lamp of wisdom lighted within enlightenment will be experienced while alive, not after death.
Bhupinder Singh is a Houston-based businessman, an engineer by profession. He hails from Myanmar,
was educated in India, and started his career there. He has a keen interest on Sikh history, motivation
and spirituality. He is author of 7 books and has co-authored one. His articles have been featured in
print media and web portals.